How to Sew a Surgical Face Mask for Hospitals – Free Pattern

Many makers have asked for a pattern to sew homemade surgical masks for hospitals. The DIY pattern in this post will teach you to make a standard pleated face mask with elastic ear loops.

If you can’t find or don’t want to use elastic, there are also instructions for using fabric ties instead.

A printable version of these pattern instructions is available at the bottom of the post.

Currently, the supply of surgical masks is at a critical all-time low throughout the entire nation.

Orders for the standard disposable masks used in hospitals are back-ordered, due to the high demand for protective equipment.

So, because of these supply concerns, many hospitals across the country have requested homemade surgical masks as an emergency stopgap measure.

According to the CDC, fabric masks are a crisis response option when other supplies have been exhausted.

This pattern has 2 layers of fabric, and an internal pocket in which you can add additional layers of disposable filtration material if desired.

An Important Distinction

Homemade face masks are not as effective as the N95 filtration mask recommended by the CDC, and are not a substitute for proper PPE.

Rather, they are meant to respond to the hospitals’ requests for emergency backup masks.

Sources for further reading: Cambridge StudyNatureOcc. Env MedAnnals Occ Hygiene)

I strongly caution you before you spend time sewing these masks:

  1. Follow the CDC guidelines as the situation develops.
  2. Contact your local hospital and clinic to ensure that they are accepting masks, and that any masks you make will meet their individual guidelines.

Homemade Face Masks are a Last Resort

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has explained that in times of crisis, homemade masks are acceptable as a last resort. On the CDC website, Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of Facemasks, they explain that while homemade masks are not a substitute for PPE, they can be used in settings where facemasks are not available.

HCP use of homemade masks:
In settings where facemasks are not available, HCP might use homemade masks (e.g., bandana, scarf) for care of patients with COVID-19 as a last resort. However, homemade masks are not considered PPE, since their capability to protect HCP is unknown. Caution should be exercised when considering this option. Homemade masks should ideally be used in combination with a face shield that covers the entire front (that extends to the chin or below) and sides of the face.

Some Hospitals are Requesting Homemade Surgical Masks

Some hospitals and clinics (like this one) are accepting donations of homemade face masks.

Before you spend time sewing a large batch of masks, please call first to ask if they are accepting them. You should ask if this pattern (2 layers of fabric with a pocket for additional disposable inserts) will meet their requirements. You should also ask about drop-off/pick-up procedures.

What Fabric Can You Use to Make A Face Mask?

Researchers at Cambridge University tested the effectiveness of a wide range of household materials for use in homemade masks. They measured how well the household materials could capture and filter small particles.

Test data shows that the best choices for DIY fabric masks are cotton t-shirts, pillowcases, or other cotton materials. For this pattern, I used a tightly-woven premium quilting cotton fabric.

Using a double layer of material for your DIY mask adds a small increase in filtration effectiveness.

DIY Surgical Mask Pattern

Materials

  • 100% cotton fabric (with a tight weave)
  • 1/8″ flat elastic, or additional fabric for ties
  • fabric scissors
  • ruler
  • pins or clips
  • sewing machine and thread

Cut List

For an adult size mask:

  • Cut 1 fabric rectangle 15.5″ long and 8.5″ wide
  • Cut 2 pieces of elastic, each 7″ long

For a child-size mask:

  • Cut 1 fabric rectangle 13.5″ long and 6.5″ wide
  • Cut 2 pieces of elastic, each 6″ long

For elastic ear loops:

  • Cut 2 7″ long pieces for an adult mask
  • Cut 2 6″ long pieces for a child mask

For fabric ties, if you aren’t using elastic:

  • Cut 4 rectangles 18″ long by 1.75″ wide. Fold the long sides to meet in the middle, then fold in half again to encase the raw edges. Stitch down the length of the rectangles along the edge to create the ties.

Step 1: Sew to the top side, with pocket

Fold the fabric in half, with the right sides facing each other.

Sew along the 8.5″ width edge, using a 3/8″ seam allowance. Leave a 3” opening in the center of this seam to create an opening for the filter pocket, and to allow the mask to be turned right side out after sewing. In the picture above, I’ve marked this opening with pins.

Don’t want a filter pocket? If you don’t want or need a pocket, that’s totally fine. You will still need to leave an opening so that you can turn the mask right side out. After you’ve attached the elastic (in the next step) and turned the mask right side out, you can stitch the opening closed. Then you can continue with the rest of the directions.

Step 2: Pin Elastic

Turn the fabric so that the seam with the pocket opening is centered in the middle of one side. (If you didn’t make a pocket opening, just skip this step and proceed with the elastic.)

Optionally, stitch to reinforce the seam: Press the seam open and topstitch or zig-zag stitch along both sides of the seam for a neater edge. Keep the mask wrong side out. (See the video for clarification.)

Pin one piece of elastic to the top and bottom of the short side of the fabric rectangle to create an ear loop. Place the ends of the elastic 1/2 “ from the top and bottom edge of the fabric.

The length of the elastic will be sandwiched inside the two layers of fabric, so it will be on the outside when you turn the mask right side out.

Repeat this process on the opposite side.

Alternative – Use fabric ties:

If you can’t find elastic, or prefer to use fabric ties, you can use 4 fabric ties, one in each corner. Each tie will be 18″ long. Sew one tie in each corner, being careful not to catch the ties in the side seams.

You can also use twill tape, bias tape, or strips from cotton jersey (t-shirt fabric).

The finished mask will then be worn by tying the fabric strips behind the head. See notes at the bottom of the post.

Step 3: Sew the Sides

Sew the sides of the facemask. Backstitch over the elastic or fabric ties to secure them. Trim the corners with scissors.

Turn the mask right side out and press with an iron. You can use a pencil to push out the corners.

Step 4: Make the Pleats

Create three evenly spaced 1/2” pleats. Pin the folds in place, and sew along the sides. Make sure all pleats are facing the same direction.

The finished mask will be about 3.75″ tall.

When the mask is worn, the pleats should open downwards to prevent any particles from collecting in the fold pockets.

Troubleshooting the Pattern

Can’t find elastic?

I’ve heard from many people that are having a hard time finding elastic. If you can’t find elastic to make the ear loops, you can make a mask with fabric ties instead. You can use ready-made 1/4″ twill tape, double-fold bias tape, or cut long strips of the same tightly woven cotton fabric you are using for the rest of the mask.

To make fabric ties: Cut 18″ long strips of fabric, 1.75″ wide. Fold the long sides together (lengthwise or hot-dog style) so that they meet in the middle. Then fold the strips in half again (lengthwise) to encase the raw edges. Stitch down the strips along the edge to create the ties.

If you wanted these straps to have a bit of stretch, you could also cut long strips from cotton jersey or knit T-shirt material.

Whichever option you choose, you’ll want to cut 4 pieces about 18″ long, and attach one strip to each of the corners. The mask will fasten by tying the straps behind the head.

What about metal to help it fit better?

To help the mask fit better around your nose, you can insert a length of flexible metal to the top inside of the mask, through the pocket insert opening before forming the pleats. Then, you can topstitch down around the metal insert so that it stays in place. I’ve seen people use pipe cleaners, floral wire, or twist ties.

What can you use as a filter?

It is so important that everyone understands that while wearing a cloth face mask can offer some level of protection, it can’t protect against viruses the same way that an N95 mask can.

In testing, a layer of HEPA vacuum cleaner bag or HEPA air filter seems to perform the best. However, it will be harder to breathe through.

If you are sewing for hospitals, they may have their own medical grade filters. Always call before you sew to check their requirements.

Disclaimer: This pattern has not been industry-tested and is intended for educational purposes only. The decision to use this device is solely your own.

Yield: 1

DIY Fabric Surgical Mask

DIY Fabric Surgical Mask

Homemade fabric surgical face mask to be worn as a last resort in a crisis situation.

Prep Time 5 minutes
Active Time 15 minutes
Total Time 20 minutes
Difficulty Easy

Materials

  • cotton fabric, tightly woven
  • 1/8" elastic

Tools

  • sewing machine and thread
  • scissors
  • ruler
  • sewing pins or clips

Instructions

  1. Cut the fabric. For an adult size mask, cut 1 fabric rectangle 15.5″ long and 8.5″ wide. Then, cut 2 pieces of elastic, each 7″ long
    For a child-size mask, cut 1 fabric rectangle 13.5″ long and 6.5″ wide. Then, cut 2 pieces of elastic, each 6″ long. (If you are using ties, make 4 18" long ties.)
  2. Sew the top side, with pocket
    Fold the fabric in half, with the right sides facing each other.
    Sew along the 8.5″ width edge, using a 3/8″ seam allowance. Leave a 2"-3” opening in the center of this seam to create an opening for the filter pocket, and to allow the mask to be turned right side out after sewing.
    Optionally, topstitch: Press the seam open. Turn the mask right side out, and topstitch/zig-zag stitch along both sides of the seam for a neater edge. Turn the mask wrong side out.
  3. Pin Elastic
    Pin one piece of elastic to the top and bottom of the short side of the fabric rectangle to create an ear loop. Place the elastic 1/2 “ from the top and bottom edge of the fabric. Repeat this process on the opposite side. (If using ties, stitch one to each corner.)
  4. Sew the Sides
    Sew the sides of the facemask. Backstitch over the elastic to secure it.
    Turn the mask right side out and press with an iron.
  5. Sew the Pleats
    Create three evenly spaced 1/2” pleats. Pin the folds in place, and sew along the sides. Making sure all pleats are facing the same direction.
    Note: When the mask is worn, the pleats should open downwards to prevent any particles from collecting in the fold pockets.

Remember, before you start sewing a huge batch of masks, please call the hospital or clinic and make sure that they both want and can accept homemade masks.

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153 thoughts on “How to Sew a Surgical Face Mask for Hospitals – Free Pattern”

  1. Approximately how many masks were you able to do using one of the filters? I work in a healthcare office and while we don’t need to wear surgical masks these would be a great option for those of us who want a bit extra protection. Thanks!

    Reply
  2. What is the measurement of the finished mask?
    That is once the pleats have been sewn down.
    How far down is the 1st pleat?

    Reply
    • The finished mask is 7″ wide and just under 4″ tall. So once you get to the pleating step, divide the mask with 3 evenly spaced lines. Then you can use these marks to create the half-inch pleats.

      Reply
      • Thanks for the pipe cleaner tip..
        what filter material is the most protective?
        and are ties better than elastic?

        I have been sewing over 50yrs…not so good at finding answers on the computer…the filter is most important and strong quilting fabric…Any help is appreciated…Oklahoma is not prepared…
        Thank you, Trisha Mullins

        Reply
        • Hi Trisha,
          Regarding the elastic vs fabric ties: It seems like it’s been hard to find elastic at stores, so a lot of people are using ties. If you are making them for personal use, you can do either. If you are making them for a hospital, you might call them to see if they have a preference.

          Reply
          • Regarding the ties versus elastic. Having worked as OR nurse for 27 yrs, I much preferred the ties. Some elastic seemed to either be too loose, or too tight. Ties give a much better fit

          • It’s taken me 2 days of searching the internet, but I have finally come up with my own pattern by combining ideas from all the different sites offering patterns and tutorials that allows for an insert. The best idea so far was the way for making ties out of old T-shirts. Soooo easy. Since elastic is at a premium, this is a time-saver and offers maximum flexibility for fit. It says to make them 18″, but my husband who is a retired oral surgeon thinks they’re a bit too long. Anyway, here is is the tutorial: https://www.madeeveryday.com/fabric-face-mask-free-pattern/

          • Yes, this a good pattern too. I guess just double check that you can use previously used fabric if you’re going to repurpose t-shirts.

    • Haven’t been able to locate the flexible metal strips but we read that you can use pipe cleaners floral wire or twist ties.
      Hope this is of some help.

      Reply
    • use pipe cleaner, cut to size. you can bend the end over and twist so no sharp edges. may want to topstitch around it when finishing to keep in place.

      Reply
    • If you have any hanging file folders, you can put the metal hanging strips out of them and bend them into shape, they’re hardy enough to hold shape for quite a while

      Reply
      • The creativity of you and this whole group of people thinking about the comfort and safety of others makes my heart burst! Hanging file folders… What a great idea. I can imagine you going around your house looking at different things and thinking “Could this work… no. What about this… no. WAIT! THIS. THIS WILL WORK!”

        Reply
      • Hardy isn’t best. The wire needs to fit across the nose and against the face. I’d think this is too stiff and will allow a gap. What have you noticed when wearing long term? Thanks.

        Reply
    • A small strip cut of floral wire with a turned loop or a dot of hot glue at the end to prevent wire from poking through the fabric.

      Reply
    • In the Garden Supply areas of stores, I bought 100 for $4 & the ties are about 8″ long. People use them to tie up their tomato plants & vines.

      Reply
    • A paper clip works if you stretch it out but leave curled ends on both sides, put in place thru the filter hole and then sew around it to keep it in place.

      Reply
    • I would think the boning strips that they put inside formal gowns and they would bend and unbend and that you can sew them right in. Its sold on a roll at what ever length you want.

      Reply
  3. I wonder if putting a folded dryer sheet inside the mask fold would add a layer?? Not all dryer sheets are thickly dense — but I’ve noticed that mine are. In fact, I save the used ones to put under table legs to make sliding the table around easier!

    Reply
  4. You can use this for wire:
    TWIST TIES
    FLORAL WIRE or
    PIPE CLEANERS.
    Just be sure to stitch the wire in place under the wired area.

    Around the head straps can also be used. Just sew loops, as directed above out of strips of fabric. Then attach 2 straps in

    Reply
  5. Attach the straps as directed for wearing over the ears, then fold them in half and attach a fabric strap in the center of the ear straps so that the mask can be tied in back of the head.

    Reply
  6. I don’t have any more narrow elastic, but I do have loads of 1″and 1/2″elation. Would it hold up if I split the elastic lengthwise? Is thinking I could even Zigzag or serge along the elastic edges.. Your thoughts?

    Reply
    • Hi Kathy,
      I did try cutting a piece of thicker elastic into two thinner pieces, but it didn’t hold up for me. After a few stretches, it started to fray.
      What you could try is having the elastic go behind the head, rather than looping around the ear. So you’d sew them on the top side and bottom side, rather than the left and right side. Make sense?
      You’d have to try it out and see how large the loops would need to be, though.

      Reply
      • Same here – I only have thicker elastic. Anyone know what length the elastic straps should be if making them behind the head? The nurses have said it’s pretty uncomfortable behind the ear with thick elastic.

        Reply
    • Yep, that could work. I think you’d need to adapt this pattern to make it wider though, since hair elastics are smaller than the 7 inches, right?

      Reply
      • The comment is regarding headband that go around the face and behind the neck, not those used for ponytails and buns. I have seen instructions for those as well. I’d think the thin ponytail style would hurt ears.

        Reply
  7. Thankyou for this pattern and all the comments. My husband and I are both over 65 and live in s. Wales,UK He is the one going out during the lockdown for our food and meds, my dad is 90 and needs food and meds etc, plus he is registered blind and lives on his own. So these masks will make us feel a little more at ease whilst going through this crisis. I’m going to sew some up tomorrow.

    Reply
  8. I made one up and it is an easy way to make a 3 folder filter mask, however I’m wondering if the 2 inch opening is wide enough to insert a filter. A none else have experience with this?

    Reply
    • 2″ is not wide enough. I would double it based on other patterns I have sewn.

      For ties – strips of cotton jersey are the easiest.

      I used plastic covered paperclips for the nose wire.

      Reply
  9. I’m concerned the raw edges at the pocket opening will fray with repeated washings. I’m thinking of reinforcing the area with zig-zag stitches after step 2?
    Also, I inherited a ton of bias tape I was planning on using when my limited elastic runs out so thanks for the note on length for ties. From experience working with cot sheets (preschool teacher here) I know that elastic only has so many washes before it looses its stretch.

    Reply
    • Yes, that’s a good idea. I was thinking yesterday that if I made that first seam allowance bigger, I could even fold it under before zig-zag stitching it down.

      Reply
  10. Perhaps making a fabric casing then place the split elastic in it then sew it to the mask. That should keep it from fraying.

    Reply
  11. How do you cut the filter material so that it fills the entire mask when the pleats expand, without leaving gaps for virus to come in ?

    Reply
    • You might need to experiment, depending on what you are using. Start with something 5-6″ square. But it’s important to adjust your expectations around “leaving gaps for the virus to come in”. This cloth mask is just not as good as an N95. That said, some studies say it’s better than nothing at all.

      Reply
        • I think non woven interfacing ‘fabric’ would work as a filter layer. I have seen a pattern using 2 layers of this stitched in between the outer fabric layers. The whole thing can then be washed after use.

          Reply
          • If you are making masks for personal use, that’s fine. If you are making them for the hospital you should contact the hospital to see what they want.

  12. I saw on utube a lady used panty liners as a filter,l’m sure that’s a fantastic idea.Thank you for this instructions.

    Reply
  13. I made one up and it is quite easy, however I’m wondering if the 2 inch opening is wide enough to insert a filter. If I make it longer (maybe 3 inches), am I compromising the mask in any way?

    Reply
    • That is what I’m wondering. I was told by my head nurse that if I could find a way to make a mask that could put a charcoal filter insert in it, that would work better than anything.

      Reply
  14. Many thanks , Have made my granddaughter one & will be making some for the carers near me in uk .
    I’ve used bits & pieces I had around the home .
    Pipe cleaners for the nose piece,
    Old 100 percent cotton tea- towels ,pillow cases & T-shirt’s .
    For the elastic Ive reused old bra straps & knicker elastic .
    For the filter I’ve used sanitary pads ,& allergy dust sheets from bed .

    I’m also thinking That n95 filters are close to hep filters , from vacuum cleaner bags, air purifier machines .
    I’m also wondering if certain fish tank filters & dust sheets etc may at least give a little protection too ..
    I guess anything is better than nothing ..keep safe all x

    Reply
  15. Instead of using elastic try what we call empty spaghetti in the swimwear industry. Use swimwear Lycra fabric
    Str. Cut 1” close with a 1/4” seam allowance using a serger being sure not to trim/cut the fabric as you’re closing. Using a “loop turner” turn the pieces right did out. Cut to the length needed. You can also cut longer length for ties too.

    Reply
  16. There is no “printable” version on this page. That’s what I need to move from computer to sewing table. Thanks anyway.

    Reply
    • Hello,
      At the bottom of the page, there is a large blue button that says “Print”. It will pull up a page with the instructions and a diagram for you to print.
      Thanks!

      Reply
        • Do a “print screen” of the instructions and then print the image you have “print screened”. You may need to scroll down and do 2 or 3 print screens in order to capture the entirety of the instructions.

          There are how to websites for “how to print pages from the web”. Please, let’s google *those* pages if we’re having printing problems, instead of making this incredible woman be tech support! She has already spent a huge amount of time making this site, taking pictures, writing up the instructions and variations! I feel
          like it’s not really her responsibility to ALSO teach people how to print from a web page 😉

          Thanks Sarah! You are amazing! This is the best mask sewing site I have found by far! ❤️

          Reply
  17. I have used sails from a large sailboat. Thought of making ‘sail bags’ out of them and sell them for a lot of $ like some I’ve seen at Boat Shows.
    The material is Dacron, rather stiff, but will hold its shape and with a filter could be used more then once. Any one else thought of this?
    I’ve heard of a UK sail loft making hospital aprons en mass.

    Reply
  18. To reiterate: it is very important that you WASH the fabric before making the mask. Fabric is preserved for marketing using formaldehyde, one of the chemicals in nail polish remover. Although good to preserve color and crispness for sale of fabric, not good to inhale!!

    Reply
  19. Since I’m busy sewing I did not take the time to read everything, but I am using mid-weight tear-away (machine) embroidery stabilizer for filters. I also know folks using landscape cloth, I think it is called. The stuff to keep the weeds from growing that you put mulch over. Just an FYI.

    Reply
  20. Dear Sarah,
    This is wonderful and I’m so glad I found it. I much prefer printed instructions over a video, so I wanted to print this out, but the minimum # of pages would be 8. Is there any way the directions could be compressed into a few pages?
    Thanks, Nora

    Reply
  21. Has anyone thought about using a coffee filter, the ones for a 12 cup coffee pot? Or another idea is interfacing fabric that can be purchased at any fabric store. Cut 1/2 the length, approx. 8.5″ wide X 7.5″ long. Stitch all around to mask fabric before folding, proceed with instructions.

    Reply
  22. Note about vacuum cleaner bags, etc: they filter great, but they are so uncomfortable they’re hard to use. Cotton fabric, even t-shirt or towel fabric, provides most of the filtration with wearability. Beware doubling up tightly woven thick fabric for the same reason. Try your first one on for an hour while you do dishes or vacuum or something. Sweaty thick masks won’t be worn.

    Reply
    • Yes, I do talk about this in the post. And even more information about fabric choices is in the research study I linked.

      If you are making masks for yourself, you are obviously free to experiment. And if you are making them for an organization, give them a call to see what they require first.

      Reply
  23. hi wsa looking for the pattern to download- could not easly find it, too many replys to scroll through

    pls advise via email

    Reply
  24. Hey all, just a few pieces of information/ideas. Air filters for heating systems come with particulate ratings. I have found that some of the furnace filters at Lowe’s and online have the ability to filter out particulate matter that is 0.3microns, the same size as what an N95 mask can. A filter with a MERV 13 rating, an FPR 10 or MPR of 1900 ,(it depends what brand you get for which rating they use), can filter out bacteria and viruses. Basically you are looking for a filter that can get particulate of 0.3microns or larger and this will/can ‘catch’ virus particles. The filter can be broken down and the fabric removed, flattened and cut to size to use as a filter for the mask.
    Please note I am not an expert on air filters, this is what I have been able to figure out based on virus particle size and reported ratings of different types of filters!

    Reply
  25. It’s been a while since I used a sewing machine, so I used Stitch Witch. Seems to serve the purpose for a personal mask and very quick to complete. Admire the people who can sew, though!

    Reply
  26. It’s been suggested that different color material be used on each side to ensure which side is worn towards patients.

    Reply
  27. 2″ is not wide enough. I would double it based on other patterns I have sewn.

    For ties – strips of cotton jersey are the easiest.

    I used plastic covered paperclips for the nose wire.

    Reply
  28. This pattern is great! Well-thought out design and good fit. I had never sewed pleats or darts before, so also learned some new things. I had a ripped bed sheet with very high thread count, so am happy to find a use for it. Directions were straight-forward, even for someone who had never done pleats and darts before. Thanks for posting this. Now that I’ve made one, will be sure to make more.

    Reply
  29. For the nose, I sewed a little length of thermostat spring into a pocket at the top. This or another similar flat (1/8 inch wide or so) lightweight spring would work well if you have it hanging around your basement. Most stores in my area are closed so I had to work with what I had!
    BTW a bandana provides the right amount of fabric for the mask and ties, with just a little left over.

    Reply
  30. I’ve been using twist ties found in garbage bag and sandwich bag boxes. Pipe cleaners work well. Also check stationary stores for those clasps used in binders. (Sorry I can’t think of what they are called right now.)

    Reply
  31. Ok, sorry for all the typos lol! Here is the corrected comment!

    Hi Sarah! Ok I am so sorry, but I’m confused about one thing. When you say:

    “ Optionally, topstitch: Press the seam open. Turn the mask right side out, and topstitch/zig-zag stitch along both sides of the seam for a neater edge. Turn the mask wrong side out.”

    Do you mean To zigzag stitch on each side of the seam you just made, closing the bottom except for 2 inches? How do I do this if the top is closed (b/c it’s the folded edge) and we’ve already sewed the bottom edge closed? I can’t make it fit under the presser foot… unless I’m supposed to sew through both layers of fabric? But if I see across that seam, when it’s on the middle, and go through both layers, except for the 2” opening, how can a filter then be inserted?

    Or, if we are only to stitch through the seam on one layer of fabric, can this be done w a machine, or only by hand? If with a machine… how???

    Thanks!

    Reply
    • Hi Lia,
      I think the video will help clear this up. You’ll press the seam allowance open, and stitch down that little flap of fabric on each side of the seam you just made. It’s supposed to help reduce fraying when you insert/remove the filters.
      You do have to bunch up the mask so that you’re only getting one layer under the presser foot. I’ll try to rework the written directions so that they are more clear.

      Reply
  32. One more question, sorry! You say:

    “ Don’t want a filter pocket? If you don’t want or need a pocket, that’s totally fine. Just sew the seam all the way across, and don’t leave an opening. Then you can continue with the rest of the directions.”

    But… if we DONT leave a 2-3” opening in the seam, how do we turn it right side out again? What am I missing? thanks!

    Reply
    • AH thank you so much for pointing this out. Yes, you would still need an opening for turning. You could do it at this point or leave an opening when you do the sides. I need to go back and edit the post to clear this up. Thanks again for flagging.

      Reply

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